Bill Sponsorship: Currency Reform for Fair Trade Act
Amends the Tariff Act of 1930 to include as a "countervailable subsidy" requiring action under a countervailing duty or antidumping duty proceeding the benefit conferred on merchandise imported into the US from foreign countries with fundamentally undervalued currency.
Defines "benefit conferred" as the difference between:
the amount of currency provided by a foreign country in which the subject merchandise is produced; and
the amount of currency such country would have provided if the real effective exchange rate of its currency were not fundamentally undervalued.
Determines that the currency of a foreign country is fundamentally undervalued if for an 18-month period:
the government of the country engages in protracted, large-scale intervention in one or more foreign exchange markets
the country's real effective exchange rate is undervalued by at least 5%
the country has experienced significant and persistent global current account
the country's government has foreign asset reserves exceeding the amount necessary to repay all its debt obligations.
[Explanatory note from Wikipedia.com "Exchange Rate"]:
Between 1994 and 2005, the Chinese yuan renminbi was pegged to the US dollar at RMB 8.28 to $1. Countries may gain an advantage in international trade if they manipulate the value of their currency by artificially keeping its value low. It is argued that China has succeeded in doing this over a long period of time. However, a 2005 appreciation of the Yuan by 22% was followed by a 39% increase in Chinese imports to the US. In 2010, other nations, including Japan & Brazil, attempted to devalue their currency in the hopes of subsidizing cheap exports and bolstering their ailing economies. A low exchange rate lowers the price of a country's goods for consumers in other countries but raises the price of imported goods for consumers in the manipulating country.